Eighth Grade Is a Movie About Middle School That Will Leave Adults in Tears

Slate

Bo Burnham’s funny, original debut feature is astonishingly mature.

A teenage girl in a swimming pool.
Elsie Fisher in Eighth Grade.
A24

“The topic of today’s video is being yourself,” stammers 13-year-old Kayla (Elsie Fisher) in one of the self-recorded advice videos she periodically posts to her YouTube channel. It’s hard to imagine any topic on which this insecure, awkward girl, with her apologetically slumped shoulders and digitally airbrushed-out acne, would make for a less convincing expert. As her generally unhappy middle school experience enters its final excruciating week, Kayla contends with some standardly bad teenage experiences: being awarded the superlative of “Most Quiet” at an end-of-year ceremony, being invisible to the “Best Eyes”–winning classmate she’s crushed out on (Luke Prael), and being pestered by her loving, hovering single dad (Josh Hamilton) to—get this—stop looking at Instagram over dinner and talk to him.

Eighth Grade never strains for topicality or hand-wrings at the state of Today’s Youth.

Kayla will later deal with scarier and dodgier situations than these run-of-the-mill indignities, even if Eighth Grade mercifully never goes as dark as first-time writer-director Bo Burnham sometimes seem to hint it will. The funny, heartfelt, and utterly original Eighth Grade is a movie about middle school starring real middle school–age kids, to which one might enjoyably take actual middle schoolers—so long as they and their parents are willing to tolerate a reasonably high degree of shared comic embarrassment. Whether or not you currently have a preteen child, every adult has been one, and it’s almost neurologically impossible not to avert your face in burning-cheeked sympathy when Kayla, face to face with the popular girls she both longs to impress and fears like the ego-destroying monsters they can be, can only summon the emptiest sycophantic banter. “By the way, I like your shirt a lot. It’s, like, so cool.” Long pause. “I have a … shirt … too.”

Eighth Grade alternates such moments of hyperreal cringe comedy with more stylized scenes filmed from Kayla’s point of view. A visit to her boorish beloved’s Instagram feed sends her down a social media spiral, captured in a montage of Snapchat selfies and BuzzFeed quizzes set to Enya’s hypnotic New Age classic “Orinoco Flow (Sail Away).” These dreamlike passages often end abruptly with the forced removal of headphones from Kayla’s ears, emphasizing the break between banal everyday reality and the curated fantasy space of social media. But Eighth Grade never strains for topicality or hand-wrings at the state of Today’s Youth: There’s a lightness and simplicity to this affectionate portrait of a girl dipping a first toe in the rushing waters of 21st-century teenagerdom.

Kayla’s omnipresent iPhone can be a vector of social anxiety and low self-esteem, but, like the YouTube videos she posts into the apparent void, it can also serve as a medium of connection. After she’s paired with a high school student (Emily Robinson) for a daylong tour of the school she’s about to move on to, the two become unexpectedly friendly, and a dazzled Kayla gets a glimpse of the only good thing about her current phase of life: Eventually, it ends. “Now I can’t wait to grow up,” she confides to her trusty webcam. But her newfound faith in the future is tested, heartstoppingly, by an encounter with an older boy (Daniel Zolghadri) who tries to pressure Kayla into a too-much-too-soon round of truth or dare.

A scene toward the end will do a thorough job of flushing out any eye irritants that might have been bothering you on the way in to the theater.

The 27-year-old Burnham, making a graceful and assured debut as a writer-director, already has a devoted following as a stand-up comedian. In fact, his career began at age 16 in exactly the place we first see Kayla: YouTube. In his most recent Netflix special Make Happy, Burnham uses his considerable versatility—he can sing, dance, take to the keyboard to pound out his own satirical pop ballads, and generally shift genres and tones on a dime—to mount a protest against stand-up comedy as a form. By the end of the hour, he’s exposed both the raw desire for approval that drives him to perform in the first place and the need for mass catharsis via entertainment that fills seats at comedy shows. At first glance, this kind of confrontational virtuosity would seem at odds with the emotional directness of Eighth Grade, which, though it showcases many acts of intentional and unintentional cruelty, is a deeply kind movie, curious and nonjudgmental even about the characters who in most coming-of-age films would be hissable villains. But some of the same themes that animate Burnham’s stand-up—his willingness to look at aspects of the modern experience that tend to be omitted from the stories we tell, his glee at subverting audience expectations—are also at play in his first feature.

Impressive as Burnham’s achievement is, Eighth Grade could never hit the heights it does without the right actress in the demanding lead role. Elsie Fisher—who was only 14 when the movie premiered at Sundance, with experience as a child voice actor in the Despicable Me franchise—delivers her “like”-heavy dialogue with such naturalism you might think the lines are improvised. But Burnham has said in interviews that the film is more scripted than it appears, and the story beats that it hits in its brisk 90-minute runtime are too precisely timed to be the result of adolescent ad-libbing. Though they get less screen time than Fisher, the rest of the teen actors, especially Jake Ryan as an earnest, geeky boy who takes a shine to Kayla at a pool party, are uniformly wonderful. And as Kayla’s devoted but confounded father, who’s alternately commanded to talk more, smile less, “stop looking weird and sad,” and just shut up and drive her to the mall, Josh Hamilton gives an exemplary performance, funny and sensitive and quietly soul-baring. A late scene by a campfire, in which Kayla’s dad struggles to articulate what watching her grow from babyhood has meant to him, will do a thorough job of flushing out any eye irritants that might have been bothering you on the way into the theater.

Eighth Grade doesn’t overstay its welcome or beg for the viewer’s approval. As Kayla records her last advice video of the school year, mortifying catchphrase and all, you’re sad to see her go, glad for the gains in self-confidence she’s made, and curious to know what she’ll do next. The same is true of Bo Burnham, who, unlike his tentative protagonist, arrives on the big screen already fully grown.

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Research Insights: Independent School Health Check Examines Teen Support Systems

NAIS

Summer 2018

By Rosemary Baggish and Peter Wells

At times, it might seem like teens want nothing to do with adults. But research from Independent School Health Check (ISHC) shows that the opposite is true. In 2007, we created ISHC, a computer-based survey, to more accurately gauge the experience of adolescents in independent schools. The ISHC assesses students’ perceptions, feelings, and behaviors regarding their schools, families, and friends as well as the risk and protective factors that affect their health and well-being. The survey assesses school attitudes and motivation, school pressure, parental supervision, social and emotional connections to adults and peers, substance use, sexuality, sleep, and diet.

Over the past 11 years, the ISHC has collected data from 80,816 middle and high school students in 102 independent schools; most schools have conducted the survey multiple times. Schools that conduct surveys typically use the data to develop and fine-tune health and wellness programs, to identify areas that need attention, as well as areas of particular strength.

One area of inquiry for the ISHC is a student’s relationship with adults. The survey asks students to rate “the adult(s) who is primarily responsible for caring for [them] on a daily basis” on behaviors such as “expresses interest in my life,” “expects me to ask if I can go out,” and “supports my efforts in sports, music, or other activities.” The survey also asks students to rate their perceptions of teachers including statements such as “teachers at my school pay attention to my personal needs, not just academic performance,” and “my teachers treat me with respect.”

Over the years, we have been impressed by the high level of engagement that so many parents maintain, and by the extent to which so many students feel that their teachers support their personal needs as well as their academic needs.

The Findings

Not all parents are supportive, however, nor do all students find encouraging adults in schools—perhaps because they were already wary about trusting an adult. Nevertheless, when we track what happens to adolescents without a reliable adult to talk to and depend on, we find that these are young people at greater risk. Conversely, when adolescents have an adult to talk with, there is benefit to both the student and to the school.

The ISHC asks several questions about students’ interactions with the adults in their lives. More than three-quarters say they “have an adult to talk to on a regular basis about what is going on in [their] life.” About 84 percent agree that “if faced with a really important question or serious problem, [they] would talk to an adult.” Mothers are the adults who students talk to the most (81.9 percent), followed by fathers (62.8 percent). Teachers (26 percent), counselors (24.6 percent), and coaches (15.4 percent) are also adults students turn to.

In high-stakes behavior, the absence of adult support is alarming. For those adolescents who think their parents are not interested or supportive, the likelihood of suicidal thoughts triples. Students who think their teachers are not attentive to their needs are twice as likely to report self-harm or suicidal thoughts. These students are also more likely to break school rules and have a much lower sense of belonging.

How Schools Can Help

What can schools do to encourage students to have attachments to adults in the community? They can build on the already effective outreach of the adults in the school community by supporting adviser programs. Offer advisers training, support, and accountability to guide them so they are able to productively engage with students and their parents. Schools can enhance their programs by offering training in communication strategies, scheduling regular adviser times, and expecting that advisers maintain contact with their advisees and their parents/guardians.

Building a working connection with families is another important strategy for enhancing students’ perception that adults are available to them. In addition to the standard parent meetings and activities that schools offer, it is important to encourage parents/guardians to reach out to their child’s adviser with any questions or concerns about their child, their family, or the school program. An effective adviser program can function as a safety net for all students when they experience academic, social, or personal problems in school and at home. ▪

To see schools that have participated, surveys available, and more, visit independentschoolhealth.com.

AUTHOR

Rosemary Baggish

Rosemary Baggish developed Independent School Health Check, a project of BMW Consulting LLC.

 

Peter Wells

Peter Wells developed Independent School Health Check, a project of BMW Consulting LLC.

The Perils Of Pushing Kids Too Hard, And How Parents Can Learn To Back Off

NPR

Kids in elite high schools face increasing pressures from peers, teachers and parents.

Francesco Zorzi for NPR

On New Year’s Eve, back in 2012, Savannah Eason retreated into her bedroom and picked up a pair of scissors.

“I was holding them up to my palm as if to cut myself,” she says. “Clearly what was happening was I needed someone to do something.”

Her dad managed to wrestle the scissors from her hands, but that night it had become clear she needed help.

“It was really scary,” she recalls. “I was sobbing the whole time.”

Savannah was in high school at the time. She says the pressure she felt to succeed — to aim high — had left her anxious and depressed.

“The thoughts that would go through my head were ‘this would be so much easier if I wasn’t alive, and I just didn’t have to do anything anymore.’ ”

Looking back Savannah, now 23, says the pressure started early.

She told us her story as we sat at the kitchen table of her childhood home in Wilton, Conn., a wealthy community near New York. Her dad commutes to the city where he works in finance.

From the outside, Savannah’s life may have appeared picture-perfect: two well-educated, loving parents; a beautiful home; siblings and lots of friends.

From an early age, Savannah says, she was considered one of the smart kids, and when she arrived at Wilton High School, she was surrounded by many other high achievers. Lots of kids take a heavy load of Advanced Placement and honors courses. They play varsity or club sports and are involved in lots of extracurricular activities.

But by sophomore year, the high expectations began to feel like a trap. Like many kids at her school – and at elite high schools across the country – she felt compelled to push herself to get good grades and get into a top college.

“Even though I was getting A’s and B’s, mostly A’s, in all my classes — all my honors classes — I still felt it wasn’t good enough,” Savannah says.

No matter how well she did, someone else was doing better. “The pressure I put on myself was out of control,” she says. She says she felt the pressure all around her — from peers, teachers and her parents.

Newfound awareness of these kinds of struggles, has started a conversation — and new initiatives — in her community. A group of parents is trying to shift the culture to balance the focus on achievement with an emphasis on well-being. Part of the equation is freeing up kids to find their own motivation and life path. There is a growing body of evidence pointing to elevated risks of anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol use among kids raised in privileged communities.

A wake-up call

Savannah’s mother, Genevieve Eason, feels she was partly to blame for the pressure Savannah felt.

“I know I was talking to her by eighth grade,” Genevieve recalls, “about how she needed to find out what her passions were, so she could get involved in the right activities … so that would look good on her college applications.”

But after Savannah’s problems began, Genevieve says, she backed off. She helped Savannah drop some of her tougher courses. And the family started to focus on well-being.

“Up to that point, I totally bought into the idea we’re supposed to push our kids to achieve. When they encounter obstacles, we push [them] to overcome those,” Genevieve says. But pushing too hard can backfire.

Given the pressure-cooker environment in her community, Genevieve wondered how many other teens may also be struggling.

In order to find out, she got together with some other parents and counselors — and worked with Wilton High School to do something very unusual. They hired a psychologist to come in and assess the student body.

On the day we visited, the seniors were preparing for graduation. In the main hallway, there was a bulletin board on which students have each pinned the logo of the college they plan to attend. We saw Dartmouth, Yale, Vanderbilt, Harvard — and many other highly selective universities.

Clearly, many kids here excel. But the results of the mental health assessment showed that a lot of kids struggle, too.

“The survey results definitely suggested that Wilton High School’s rates of anxiety and depression with students was higher than national averages — significantly higher,” says school principal Robert O’Donnell. He says he was surprised and concerned.

About 1,200 students — almost the entire student body — took the survey, known as the Youth Self-Report. The survey found that compared with a national norm of 7 percent, about 30 percent of Wilton High School students had above average levels of internalizing symptoms. These include feelings of sadness, anxiety and depression. It also includes physical problems that can be linked to emotional distress such as headaches or stomachaches. Often, kids may hide these feelings.

The survey also found that rates of alcohol and drug use among Wilton students were higher than average, too. We asked the psychologist who did the assessment whether she was surprised by what she found.

“This is by no means unique to Wilton. It’s a common phenomenon across high-achieving schools,” says Suniya Luthar, professor emerita at Columbia University’s Teachers College and founder of Authentic Connections, a nonprofit that aims to build resilience in communities and schools.

Luthar has been studying adolescents for more than 20 years. She has published several studies that document the elevated rates of drug and alcohol use by kids who grow up in privileged communities — where incomes and expectations are high. Surprisingly, she says, the rates rival what she has documented in low-income, urban schools.

“What we’ve found is that kids in high-achieving, relatively affluent communities are reporting higher levels of substance use than inner-city kids and levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms are also commensurate — if not greater,” Luthar says.

Her most recent study, funded by the National Institutes of Health, found that rates of substance abuse remain high among upper-middle-class kids, as they enter early adulthood. The alcohol or drugs are a form of self-medication.

Savannah’s mother, Genevieve Eason, says she is not surprised by Luthar’s findings.

“People choose communities like this to give their children opportunities, but it comes at a cost,” Eason says.

The survey findings have been a wake-up call for the community of Wilton. “A lot of people were in denial,” says Vanessa Elias. The mother of three children is the president of the Wilton Youth Council, which aims to promote the emotional well-being of the community.

“People don’t talk about these things,” Elias says. Families often struggle silently, not realizing that their friends’ or neighbors’ kids are experiencing the same struggles. “So having an opportunity to create a conversation about this was really important,” she says.

Dialing back the pressure

The community has lots of ideas about how to tackle these issues.

The high school is focused on continuing to train counselors, and student-directed initiatives are aimed at raising awareness about anxiety and depression.

Wilton is also offering a resilience training program — GoZen! — to elementary school students. It’s a research-based program that teaches coping and happiness skills. There’s a body of evidence to show that resilience training can help reduce symptoms of depressive or negative thinking among children.

At home, Elias says, she has tried to create a low-stress environment for her children. For instance, she limits the number of after-school activities her kids participate in so they don’t spend every afternoon being driven around, overscheduled. She also limits homework time in the evening for her youngest daughter — a third-grader. As a result, “there’s a lot less friction in the household,” she says.

And when she realized that the focus on standardized testing was making one of her daughters anxious in first grade — and giving her stomachaches — she opted her two youngest children out of standardized testing.

Elias says she has been influenced by the book How To Raise An Adult by Julie Lythcott-Haims, which aims to help parents break free of what the author dubs the “over-parenting trap.”

But to really change things — to dial back the focus on academic achievement at all costs — will require a culture shift, says Eason.

“We have to broaden our definitions of success and celebrate more kinds of success,” she says.

For Eason’s daughter, Savannah, this means forging a new path.

“I don’t want to work on Wall Street; that sounds miserable to me,” Savannah says.

She enrolled in culinary school, and she is training to be a pastry chef.

“I’m never going to live the same lifestyle I did growing up,” Savannah says, “I’m not going to make that much money, but that’s OK.”

She has her own set of priorities. “It’s not about how big your house is and what kind of car you drive. It’s about happiness and peace.”

This is a different kind of success, one that her parents are now celebrating with her.

“I spend hours making a cake, and my favorite part is when you cut it up and people eat it,” Savannah says. “That’s the part when you bring joy to people, and that’s what’s important to me now.”

Tips To Dial Back The Pressure

Start a conversation — and keep it going

“Ask your kids the question ‘Am I pushing you too hard?’ ” says Colleen Fawcett, Wilton Youth Services coordinator. Don’t just ask once, she says, ask it periodically and keep the line of communication open.

Don’t supervise everything

“It’s OK to let them out of your sight,” says Lenore Skenazy, president of Let Grow, an organization that promotes childhood resilience. Let kids choose activities to do by themselves, like going to the store or walking to the park. Try this exercise from Let Grow for giving kids more control, which can buffer anxiety and foster self-confidence.

Let them play

Unlike supervised activities, Skenazy says, free play teaches kids how to negotiate, compromise, make friends and communicate. “When we deprive children of unstructured playtime, they don’t learn how to mature or deal with frustration or fear,” she says.

Underschedule

“Try to counterbalance the highly competitive culture,” says parent Vanessa Elias. Resist the temptation to overschedule your kids. Encourage them to limit their organized activities, and emphasize family time and downtime.

Millions of kids on ADHD meds decide their treatment as adults

CNN

Brain training to help with anxiety and ADHD_00014117

Treatment for kids

ADHD is a disorder that deals with the inability to focus, and it comes in three types: inattentive, hyperactive/impulsive and combined. A person with the inattentive type of ADHD — also called attention-deficit disorder, or ADD — has trouble following directions or paying attention to details and is easily distracted.
A person with the hyperactive type of ADHD is restless, has trouble sitting still and is impulsive. A person with the combined type has equal amounts of inattentiveness and hyperactiveness. The CDC says these children are impulsive and restless, whereas children with ADD do not have the hyperactivity characteristic.
Pediatricians and child psychiatrists typically give parents a few treatment options: medication, behavior modification or both. Nearly 43% of children with ADHD in America are treated with medication alone. Some commonly prescribed medications are amphetamine/dextroamphetamine, known as Adderall; methylphenidate, known as Concerta or Ritalin; and lisdexamfetamine, known as Vyvanse.

Safety first

Dr. Angela Hutchins-Howard, a pediatrician and American Academy of Pediatrics fellow in Snellville, Georgia, recommends getting a doctor’s input before practicing self-regulation of medication.
“It’s safe, and I leave a lot of [the decision to self-regulate] up the parents,” Hutchins-Howard said.
Sometimes, people who take ADHD/ADD medication regularly will build a tolerance to the side effects. But if a person practices self-regulation, Hutchins-Howard says, it can be harder to build that tolerance. And according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, young children are more prone to side effects than older kids.
Common side effects of ADHD/ADD medication include decreased appetite, nausea, trouble sleeping and moodiness.
Russell A. Barkley, a clinical professor of psychiatry at the Virginia Treatment Center for Children and the Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center in Richmond, emphasized the possible problems with self-regulation of ADD/ADHD medication without the supervision of a doctor.
“There can be poor understanding of the side effects profile of the meds, poor dosing, failure to understand any contraindications and dependency from excess usage,” Barkley said.
Barkley recommends working with someone who has a thorough knowledge of the drug, its mechanisms of action and dosing before attempting to self-regulate alone.

Treatment for adults

Studies show that medication eases the symptoms of ADD and ADHD about 80% of the time. But despite its effectiveness, as children age, they tend to want to use the medication less and less and cope with their symptoms by other means.
Barkley has written more than 200 articles about ADHD research, assessment, treatment and development. After studying ADHD-diagnosed children into adulthood, he divides them into three groups based on self-regulation of medication and awareness of the disorder.
Group one, as he defines it, is children who became adults and were able to outgrow the disorder, which happens to 10% to 15%, according to one study Barkley cites in his book “Taking Charge of Adult ADHD.”
The second group is children who don’t outgrow the disorder and are still symptomatic but lose enough characteristics that they can’t be officially diagnosed. Typically, these children are still able to receive medication and make up about 25% of childhood ADHD/ADD diagnoses. They are also the population that is most likely to self-regulate medication.
The third group remains fully diagnosed and makes up about 65% of the population.
For those in the second group, “the majority of them coming off of meds are simply defiant,” Barkley said. “They’re not compliant. They didn’t ask for help. They don’t think they have a problem. But they were dragged into a clinic by Mom and Dad.”
According to the study, once children in the second group hit adulthood and move farther from home, they are less likely to continue taking medication.
“Of all the kids we follow with ADHD to age 21, by 21, only 5% acknowledge that they have a disorder. They don’t think they have it,” Barkley said. “So part of our job with young adults is getting them to buy into it. It may take 10 to 20 years before they hit rock bottom or something severe happens before they realize they have a problem. My brother was in his third marriage, kicked out of the house and was court ordered into treatment for abusing drugs before he realized.”
For some, acknowledging the disorder and taking medication have never been a problem. Edward Hallowell, a graduate of Harvard College and Tulane School of Medicine and a child and adult psychiatrist specializing in managing ADD and ADHD, has a daughter who’s been taking medication for ADHD every day for years.
“My daughter was diagnosed in the third grade. She’s now 28 and … takes it and loves it,” Hallowell said. “So, meds when they’re used properly, are a godsend.”
Barkley agrees that medication, used properly, is the best way to treat ADD/ADHD. “You’re not going to find anything as good as the medication. But there are supplements to your medication that help.”

Behavioral therapy and other options

Behavioral therapy is another option doctors and psychiatrists often recommend or children diagnosed with ADHD, though only about 10% of US children with the diagnosis use behavioral therapy alone. It can come in various forms but ultimately has one goal: implementing tools to change behavior.
March’s mother, Kathy, started using behavioral therapy with her after going to a doctor’s appointment and realizing how her daughter’s brain worked.
“We were at one of her psychiatrist appointments, and they gave her a three-step command,” Kathy said. “They’d tell her ‘Go get me that coloring book, then bring me a pencil, and go get a glass of water.’ [Erin] would only do one of those things.”
Kathy learned that it’s important for caregivers to understand how their child’s brain works in order to properly modify their behavior. She began to build Erin up with small commands and slowly progress to longer commands until she “blossomed beyond anything.”
Hutchins-Howard has worked with many ADD and ADHD patients and recommends a few options for parents before deciding to try medication.
“Parents can try making lists with children, establishing routines, talking with the teacher and changing seating arrangements in the classroom,” Hutchins-Howard said. “I tell people that medication helps, but therapy and making changes is important, too.”
Hutchins-Howard self-diagnosed herself with ADD/ADHD once she was in practice and realized the similarities between her patients and herself. However, she has never has taken medication for the condition. Instead, she practices routines and emphasizes the importance of learning organizational skills.
Hollis Cuffie was diagnosed when he was 19. After three years of trying medications to ease his symptoms, he now uses supplemental ways of managing his ADHD.
Hollis Cuffie spent three years trying different medications to ease his ADHD symptoms.

In addition to medication, he recommends getting enough sleep, eating lots of protein and doing physical exercise. “It’s so important for people with ADHD to be able to release some of the frantic, distracting energy going on upstairs into consistent forms of activity,” he said. “And although it’s not talked about enough, diet plays a huge role in deploying adequate resources for your cognitive function.”
Hiring a coach is another technique. They might help a person with ADD/ADHD manage time and money, keep track of goals and provide structure to their lives. A coach can also create accountability.
According to the book “Getting Ahead of Adult ADHD” by Joel T. Nigg, the commonly used behavioral modification techniques are:
  • Exercise, especially when children are young
  • Eating healthy, including getting enough water, cutting out sugary foods and piling up protein
  • Getting enough sleep
  • Using a planner for events
  • Establishing routines
  • Caffeine to help with focus
  • Meditation
  • Coaching
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy
Although behavior modification is a popular treatment option for people with ADHD/ADD, a recent review of 50 studies conducted from 2009 to 2016 suggests that “there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the effectiveness of ADHD non-pharmacologic treatments.” This includes behavioral therapy and complementary medicines as well as natural and herbal remedies such as omega fatty acid supplements.

How self-regulation works

As children go into adolescence and then adulthood, they might make ADD/ADHD work for them. For some, this means using the medication only when needed. Amber Timility, who was 8 when she was diagnosed, now self-regulates her medication just like March.
“I don’t take the medicine every day, because it makes me feel like a zombie,” said Timilty, 25. “But when I have to work or go to school, I take it. Or if there’s something that I need to get done.”
Shakiara Gilliam, 25, was in the second grade when she was diagnosed. She began self-regulating when she was in high school and college. Today, she doesn’t take the medication all.
“I will honestly say I hated the way I felt,” Gilliam said. “I would go into this robotic personality, and I only wanted to do work and had zero emotion. I felt like I couldn’t laugh or make jokes. I only wanted to focus.”
Khaliah Shaw doesn't let an ADHD diagnosis stop her from mission trips to help children in the Dominican Republic.

Khaliah Shaw takes her medication relatively regularly. She was diagnosed later in life, at 18. Now 27, she takes her medication during the week but not on the weekends. She also goes to cognitive behavioral therapy. “I knew it was a lifelong disorder that would need medication indefinitely,” Shaw said.
Most regulate their medication by what tasks need more concentration, such as school or work. But for more leisurely activities such as hanging with friends, people go without. Hallowell recommends whatever works for the specific individual and properly managing the diagnosis instead of stopping medication.
“The part that people don’t know is that [ADD/ADHD] is an asset if you manage it right,” Hallowell said. “If you don’t manage it, it’s horrible.” Picking a career path that utilizes ADD/ADHD as a benefit is one way of using it as an asset.

Adulthood

As children become adults, they find professions they like, and some are more conducive to those with ADD/ADHD.
“Medicine is great for people with ADD/ADHD. Sales is great. Trial lawyers. They’re all great,” Hutchins-Howard said. “I tell people all the time that I get paid to have ADD. I get paid to run from room to room and multitask. … Find what works for you, and don’t be discouraged.”
Barkley has seen ADD and ADHD patients do well in the military, performing arts, athletics, law enforcement and firefighting. When proper self-regulation of medication, practice of behavior modification and choosing a career that works with ADD/ADHD come together, he said, the outcomes are beneficial to the patient and everyone around them.
The benefits of ADD/ADHD don’t stop there: Hutchins-Howard sees positive outcomes in herself and her patients in various aspects of life.

See the latest news and share your comments with CNN Health on Facebook and Twitter.

“I’m able to have multiple balls in the air at once. I’m much better at multitasking,” she said. “And with having a family, I can balance a lot more on my plate between being a parent, having a job and being married.”
For recent college grad March, ADHD allows her to be more social. “I am more comfortable speaking in crowds and just going up to people I don’t know,” she said.
“I’m more open than most, more willing to talk to anyone, and I can basically hold a conversation with a brick wall,” Hutchins-Howard said. “So, it’s not all bad. It really depends on how you look at it. God made me this way, and I use [ADHD] to my advantage.”

The Impact of Smartphones on Concentration and Cognitive Abilities

ISM

Vol. 17 No. 9 5/31/18

PSN eletter vol15 no12 smartphone

Smartphones have become an integral part of most people’s everyday routines. Researchers say that Americans check their phones every 12 minutes on average, totaling 80 times each day.

With smartphones infiltrating every aspect of our lives—how does even the presence of a smartphone impact one’s ability to concentrate and use cognitive abilities?

Researchers from the University of Texas at Austin, the University of California at San Diego, and Carnegie Mellon joined forces to find out. They conducted a study with 548 participants, split into three groups. All were asked to complete computerized tests.

The first group was asked to leave their belongings outside the testing room. The second group left most of their belongings outside the room, but were asked to bring their phones in and place them face down on their desks. The third group brought all of their belongings into the room and were told to keep their phones “wherever they ‘naturally’ would.” Most either kept their phones in their pockets or in their bags.

Once the tests were complete, participants were asked if they believed their phones impacted their performance. The majority, 80%, said they did not think their phones impacted them at all.

However, the results showed something different. Participants who left their phones outside the room drastically outperformed those with their phones on their desks, and slightly outperformed those who had their phones in their pockets or bags. The results suggest that “the mere presence of one’s smartphone may reduce available cognitive capacity and impair cognitive functioning, even when consumers are successful at remaining focused on the task at hand.”

As more students own and use smartphones at younger ages, school leaders wonder what policies they should implement regarding use during the school day. The findings from this research present an extremely interesting viewpoint.

Phones appear to have a significant impact on one’s ability to concentrate and use cognitive abilities—even when they aren’t in use. Review your school’s policies for student smartphone usage. Consider whether you’re doing everything you can to promote learning—and remove distractions—during this vital time in your students’ lives.

Juuling: An Alarming Trend Reversing Decades of Health Gains

NAIS

Cigarette smoking has been on a steady decline among teens for the past decade. That’s good news … but, a new craze called “Juuling” is threatening to reverse that. A Juul is a brand of e-cigarette that has become popular among middle and high schoolers, at least in part because of youth-friendly flavors and a discrete, concealable design. If Juuling is not yet on your radar, it should be, as it is quickly moving from a trend among a small percentage of teens to a major health crisis, with many implications still unknown.

Our Country’s Long Relationship with Tobacco

The history of smoking in the United States is as old as the country itself, with tobacco at the center of many early Native American spiritual ceremonies. European settlers fueled the economic growth of America through the tobacco trade, with many linking the country’s dependence on this cash crop to the birth of the slave trade. Tobacco use spiked after World War I, when soldiers returned home addicted to tobacco.

During the decades that followed, smoking took on a “cool” vibe, with ad campaigns like the Marlboro Man driving cigarette sales despite emerging research on the associated health risks. By the late 1950s, research confirmed those links between smoking and a variety of life-threatening diseases, pushing cigarette packs to carry a warning label by the ‘60s. Smoking bans in public places followed but did not really take root until the early ‘90s. By then, smoking had reached its peak in the U.S. population, with slightly more than 50 percent of eighth-, 10th-, and 12th-graders combined reporting cigarette usage, according to the University of Michigan’s Monitoring the Future (MTF)report.

By 2017, the number of teens smoking cigarettes had dropped to 17 percent, thanks to a growing awareness of the harmful effects. According to the MTF study, “it takes quite some time for the public to comprehend adverse consequences of a particular drug, thus when a new one comes on the scene, it has a considerable honeymoon period before usage declines as awareness peaks.” The United States had reached the point of steady decline in cigarette smoking among teens, with usage dropping by nearly two-thirds since 2000. Now, we may reverse those gains due to the popularity of vaping and Juuling. As defined by MTF, “vaping involves the use of a battery-powered device to heat a liquid or plant material that releases chemicals in an inhalable vapor or aerosol, or mist. Examples of vaping devices include e-cigarettes, ‘mods,’ and e-pens. The vapor may contain nicotine, the active ingredients of marijuana, flavored propylene glycol, and/or flavored vegetable glycerin. The liquid that is vaporized comes in hundreds of flavors, many of which (e.g., bubble gum and milk chocolate cream) likely are attractive to teens.”

The New Honeymoon with Vaping and Juuling

The MTF survey began tracking vaping usage in 2015, with more than one-third of 12th-graders reporting usage at that time. In 2017, MTF began tracking the substances used in the devices, with 25 percent of 12th-graders reporting nicotine usage and 12 percent reporting marijuana vaping. MTF researchers believe these numbers are likely to grow.

Although originally touted to help an adult population curb cigarette smoking, vaping may be introducing a whole new generation to nicotine and potentially other dangers not yet fully understood. Many researchers are now tracking evidence that vaping predicts cigarette experimentation. According to JAMA Pediatrics, as reported in the Wall Street Journal, “teens and young adults who try e-cigarettes are about three times more likely to try cigarettes later.” In addition, according to a recent article in USA Today, “Nicotine, contained in varying amounts in e-cigarettes, can rival the addictiveness of heroin and cocaine. For young people, whose brains are not fully developed, it can be particularly dangerous, leading to reduced impulse control, deficits in attention and cognition, and mood disorders.”

And, by all measures, vaping appears to still be in its honeymoon stage. The trend that appears to be accelerating this is Juuling. A Juul is a vaping device that resembles a flash drive and can be used for smoking all types of substances. In an interview with CNN, Pamela Ling, a professor at the University of California-San Francisco School of Medicine, said, “Because it’s referred to as Juuling, not smoking or vaping, some students may think what they’re doing is harmless. They may not even know it contains nicotine.” She goes on to point out that “one Juul ‘pod,’ the nicotine cartridge inserted into the smoking device and heated, delivers about 200 puffs, about as much nicotine as a pack of cigarettes, according to the product’s website.”

The maker of Juul has now taken measures to restrict teen access to the product, but many students report that the product is relatively easy to come by. After months of complaints by parents, teachers, and others, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is finally stepping in. It announced in April that it had begun “a large-scale, undercover nationwide blitz” on the illegal sale of e-cigarettes to minors, online and in stores. The FDA has discovered numerous violations and has sent warning letters to more than 40 retailers. Next steps include:

  • Working with eBay to prevent sales of Juuls through re-sellers.
  • Working directly with the manufacturers of Juuls to hold them accountable for taking action to prevent teen access.
  • Investigating companies that are using misleading advertising to lure teens into using vaping products.
  • Engaging in research-based campaigns to alert students to the dangers of all tobacco products.

Actions Schools Should Take Now

So what can schools do to protect students? Experts suggest a few essential steps:

  • Revise school policies to specifically call out vaping and related devices.
  • Develop programs to educate students on the dangers of vapes and Juuls.
  • Train faculty and administrators to recognize the use of vapes and Juuls at school.
  • Inform parents about the dangers of vaping and what they can do at home to protect their children.
  • Share this American Academy of Pediatrics fact sheet with parents and teachers.

Some schools have taken even more proactive steps, such as placing sensors in bathrooms to detect vaping. Others have banned the use of flash drives that so closely resemble these devices. Clearly, every school needs to take this threat seriously and to take proactive steps that fit with the age of the students they serve.

Unfortunately, the long-term health effects of vaping and Juuling on both the development of the teen brain and overall physical health are just beginning to be discovered. There is time to end the honeymoon period for these devices if we act now as a community. Please share what actions your school is taking to deal with this crisis so that together we can end this epidemic.

What Teachers Need to Know About “13 Reasons Why”

Address parents’ concerns and support students with the return of this popular Netflix series.

May 14, 2018
Erin Wilkey OhEXECUTIVE EDITOR, EDUCATION MARKETING

Common Sense Education

If you work with middle or high school students, you’ve no doubt heard about the Netflix series 13 Reasons Why. The controversial show returns for a second season on Friday, May 18. Based on the best-selling 2007 book, the show revolves around a teen girl who dies by suicide, leaving behind a series of tapes that hold the story of her motives.

When the first season premiered in 2017, schools grappled with how to address parents’ concerns about the series and how to help students process the show and its themes. The series depicts graphic scenes of sexual assault, rape, and suicide, and many adults — including mental health practitioners — worry that teens with mental health issues may conclude that suicide is the only solution to their struggles. In addition, many tweens and young teens watch the series, causing great concern among parents and experts who feel the show’s themes are too mature for younger kids.

In 2017, schools and educators responded to these concerns in a variety of ways: sending messages homehosting parent panels, and even using the series as a springboard for action. One high school in Michigan started a 13 Reasons Why Not campaign to raise awareness and open up a conversations about teen mental health.

Given how TV and movies can facilitate conversations about difficult topics, teachers might consider using the upcoming release of 13 Reasons Why’s second season as an opportunity to talk with students about suicide, rape, mental health, and how schools can support kids.

If you’re looking for ideas on how to respond to the series, a host of organizations have resources to help parents, educators, and students process the show’s difficult topics:

In addition, many of Common Sense Education’s digital citizenship lessons and resources can be used to start conversations in the classroom on key topics from 13 Reasons Why: