Teachers Share How Black History Month is Taught in Schools

In Anthony Marshall’s first-hour class on Monday, students were doing research about Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois.

“With whom do you agree?” the assignment on the classroom white board reads. “Who had the best plan for equality?”

Marshall, a teacher at Booker T. Washington High School, said he wanted his students to look into the two activists’ backgrounds to help them understand how they developed their philosophies. At the end of the assignment would come a debate, with students assigned to take either side.

Marshall teaches Advanced Placement U.S. history, and he also teaches a course focused on African-American studies. He refers to it as “U.S. history from an African-American perspective.”

The course covers subjects such as the civil rights movement and the Tulsa Race Riot, but it also takes a look at less known facets of black history in the U.S., including the contributions of African-Americans in every stage of the nation’s history.

Posters in Marshall’s class include the text of the Emancipation Proclamation and a list of African-American inventors and scientists.

Marshall, who organized several events at his school in February in honor of Black History Month, said he does not believe black history is being adequately taught in Oklahoma classrooms.

“If history were taught the way it should be taught, you would not need a separate class called black history,” he said.

Marshall said the fact that there is a need for his specific class shows that “there is a void in how we teach.”

Marshall said that when he began working at Booker T. in 2006, he and a few community activists worked to re-introduce a black history course in Tulsa Public Schools. The course is still an elective in the schools that offer it, and many schools throughout the area do not offer a course dedicated to black history.

He said so far, the teaching of black history has been pushed by individual “bold” teachers who seek to bring this perspective of history to their students.

Earl Derkatch, a history teacher at Owasso High School and chair of the social studies department, said his students are nearly finished studying the civil rights movement.

Though he agrees that more attention could be given in history courses to black history, as well as Native American history and the history of other ethnic groups, he said today’s textbooks are better than they have been in the past in terms of inclusion.

Derkatch has taught history for more than 40 years.

“The way textbooks are written today, they’ve interwoven in a lot of black history,” he said.

Attention is given to the contributions of African-Americans in everything from the Spanish-American War to the Vietnam War.

But Derkatch still has to bring in outside material to supplement what is provided in the textbooks.

During Black History Month, he brings in the works of African-American authors. When the class is talking about economics, he includes the writings of the notable black economist Thomas Sowell. If it’s time for discussions about pre-colonial times, Derkatch brings in books about the contributions of black individuals.

Derkatch’s and Marshall’s goals are the same: To show students the lesser-known contributions from minority communities, specifically those of African-Americans.

Cori Williams, a senior in one of Marshall’s classes, said the course has opened her eyes to aspects of history she’d never known before.

For example, she knew about the slave trade and that slaves were brought the America on crowded ships. She just never knew the extent of the ill treatment of them on those ships, nor exactly how packed they were.

“I think the black perspective is really important because we’re a part of this nation as well,” she said.

For senior Darian Walters, the class is interesting because it is not focused on the traditional aspects of black history, such as slavery and the civil rights movement.

“This is like, black people have played a part in everything in America,” he said.

Derkatch says he makes an effort to make all groups of students in his class feel included historically, whether its his African-American, Native American or Hmong students.

“They get a sense of belonging and pride when they feel included,” he said.

Pauline Harris, human rights coordinator for Tulsa Public Schools, has taught African-American studies at Tulsa Community College in past years.

Though she felt that not all students were exposed to the subject properly in high school, she said schools are doing better now than in the past.

She’s said workshops have been conducted at TPS on how to teach a variety of topics, including black history.

Harris also said Oklahoma’s academic standards — which the state has reverted to after Common Core was repealed last year — include the teaching of the Tulsa Race Riot, which in the past had not been taught by all schools.

She said textbooks now are more diverse and inclusive.

“We’ve made great strides,” Harris said.

But both Derkatch and Marshall say more can be done.

Derkatch said one of the problems with survey classes is that there is too much material to cover and not enough time to cover it. That is why it is difficult to include so many perspectives or contributions of all ethnic and racial groups in a single course, he said.

Money shortages also pose a problem when considering adding special electives to cover the extra material, he said.

Marshall said it is important for all students to be able to learn about American history from an African-American perspective.

“Race is one of the biggest issues in our country,” he said.


If Your Teacher Likes You, You Might Get A Better Grade


FEBRUARY 22, 2015
The Teacher's Pet

LA Johnson/NPR

Were you ever the teacher’s pet? Or did you just sit behind the teacher’s pet and roll your eyes from time to time?

A newly published paper suggests that personality similarity affects teachers’ estimation of student achievement. That is, how much you are like your teacher contributes to his or her feelings about you — and your abilities.

“Astonishingly, little is known about the formation of teacher judgments and therefore about the biases in judgments,” says Tobias Rausch, an author of the study and a research scientist at the Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg in Germany. “However, research tells us that teacher judgments often are not accurate.”

This study looked at a group of 93 teachers and 294 students in eighth grade in Germany. Everyone took a short test to establish basic features of their personalities: extraversion, agreeableness and the like.

They gave the students reading and math tests too, sharing the test items with the teachers. Then they asked the teachers two questions: How good is this student compared to an average eighth grader? How well will this student do on this test?

In other words, the first question asked the teacher to give a global judgment; the second asked for a task-specific judgment.

The study found that when teachers and students were peas in a pod, the teachers overestimated the students’ general abilities. Conversely, students who were dissimilar from their teachers were judged less positively.

But when the judgment was grounded to a specific test, the effect disappeared.

This finding is maybe not that surprising. But it’s important for two reasons.

First, there’s concern that teacher bias of many kinds may unfairly hold back groups of students.

For example, a recent study from Israel showed that teachers gave girls lower grades on math tests when they knew their gender. And lots of researchers have looked at the importance of having teachers who share the racial and socio-economic backgrounds of their students.

If teachers give students who are similar to them better grades, or even just maintain higher expectations of those students, what does that do for the students who don’t look or act like their teachers?

Second, as Rausch, the co-author, points out, this study points to the importance of balancing teachers’ “holistic” evaluations with standardized assessments, or at least assessments that aren’t graded by a student’s own teacher.

Rausch also says it might be a good idea to spend more time training teachers to notice their biases. “The best way to control for is probably raising teachers’ awareness concerning the way they assess their students’ competencies and their awareness concerning typical judgment biases and tendencies,” he says. Human judgment, after all, is only human.

Straight Talk for White Men

SUPERMARKET shoppers are more likely to buy French wine when French music is playing, and to buy German wine when they hear German music. That’s true even though only 14 percent of shoppers say they noticed the music, a study finds.

Researchers discovered that candidates for medical school interviewed on sunny days received much higher ratings than those interviewed on rainy days. Being interviewed on a rainy day was a setback equivalent to having an MCAT score 10 percent lower, according to a new book called “Everyday Bias,” by Howard J. Ross.

Those studies are a reminder that we humans are perhaps less rational than we would like to think, and more prone to the buffeting of unconscious influences. That’s something for those of us who are white men to reflect on when we’re accused of “privilege.”

White men sometimes feel besieged and baffled by these suggestions of systematic advantage. When I wrote a series last year, “When Whites Just Don’t Get It,” the reaction from white men was often indignant: It’s an equal playing field now! Get off our case.

Yet the evidence is overwhelming that unconscious bias remains widespread in ways that systematically benefit both whites and men. So white men get a double dividend, a payoff from both racial and gender biases.

Consider a huge interactive exploration of 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.comthat recently suggested that male professors are disproportionately likely to be described as a “star” or “genius.” Female professors are disproportionately described as “nasty,” “ugly,” “bossy” or “disorganized.”

One reaction from men was: Well, maybe women professors are more disorganized!

But researchers at North Carolina State conducted an experiment in which they asked students to rate teachers of an online course (the students never saw the teachers). To some of the students, a male teacher claimed to be female and vice versa.

When students were taking the class from someone they believed to be male, they rated the teacher more highly. The very same teacher, when believed to be female, was rated significantly lower.

Something similar happens with race.

Two scholars, Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, sent out fictitious résumés in response to help-wanted ads. Each résumé was given a name that either sounded stereotypically African-American or one that sounded white, but the résumés were otherwise basically the same.

The study found that a résumé with a name like Emily or Greg received 50 percent more callbacks than the same résumé with a name like Lakisha or Jamal. Having a white-sounding name was as beneficial as eight years’ work experience.

Then there was the study in which researchers asked professors to evaluate the summary of a supposed applicant for a post as laboratory manager, but, in some cases, the applicant was named John and in others Jennifer. Everything else was the same.

“John” was rated an average of 4.0 on a 7-point scale for competence, “Jennifer” a 3.3. When asked to propose an annual starting salary for the applicant, the professors suggested on average a salary for “John” almost $4,000 higher than for “Jennifer.”

It’s not that we white men are intentionally doing anything wrong, but we do have a penchant for obliviousness about the way we are beneficiaries of systematic unfairness. Maybe that’s because in a race, it’s easy not to notice a tailwind, and white men often go through life with a tailwind, while women and people of color must push against a headwind.

While we don’t notice systematic unfairness, we do observe specific efforts to redress it — such as affirmative action, which often strikes white men as profoundly unjust. Thus a majority of white Americans surveyed in a 2011 study said that there is now more racism against whites than against blacks.

None of these examples mean exactly that society is full of hard-core racists and misogynists. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, a Duke University sociologist, aptly calls the present situation “racism without racists”; it could equally be called “misogyny without misogynists.” Of course, there are die-hard racists and misogynists out there, but the bigger problem seems to be well-meaning people who believe in equal rights yet make decisions that inadvertently transmit both racism and sexism.

So, come on, white men! Let’s just acknowledge that we’re all flawed, biased and sometimes irrational, and that we can do more to resist unconscious bias. That means trying not to hire people just because they look like us, avoiding telling a young girl she’s “beautiful” while her brother is “smart.” It means acknowledging systematic bias as a step toward correcting it.

Applying Mindfulness to Mundane Classroom Tasks

By Abby Wills, FEBRUARY 5, 2015


Day after day, I entered my psycho-physical education classroom at New Roads Middle School, primed and prepared to facilitate an inspiring lesson full of mindful practices. And day after day, I felt subtle disappointment as students stumbled in rowdy from recess and fumbled their way through the necessary task of moving the eight full-size tables and 25 chairs aside to make space for our work. A chore that could take well under five minutes was eating up our class time and starting our class period with a raucous energy.

I tried assigning students to particular desks as they walked through the door. This helped establish greater participation, but the noise level was still an issue. I tried whispering to students as they entered the room to set a quiet tone. The noise level receded, but the chaos and clatter of tables and chairs banging into each other was still an obstacle to the peaceful experience I intended to create for our class.

I even tried arriving very early and moving the furniture myself, at which point I realized I was over-handling the situation. I was taking full responsibility, rather than trusting my students with their fair share. In short, I wasn’t applying my pedagogy to transition time. Instead, I was trying to completely manage the transition so that we could get to the lesson sooner.

As good ideas often do, this one landed like a ton of bricks — it’s the journey, not the destination.

Calming the Waters

That night I spent my lesson planning time in contemplation on my cushion, rather than at my computer. “How can I integrate the necessary classroom housekeeping into the content of our curriculum?” I listened. I waited. Aha!

The next morning, I rounded up eight colorful plastic bowls from my kitchen and packed them along with a large jar of water. Upon arrival at my classroom, I placed a half-full bowl of water on each table. I placed the portable whiteboard near the entrance of the room so that as every student walked in, he or she would read this message:


Then I stood at the back of the room and observed as each student’s mind stopped for a brief moment. Novelty led to curiosity, and as they carried on with the regular task of moving desks, the mundane was transformed into a simple exercise of mindful movement and peer cooperation.

The tables seemed to float on thin air. Not a single bang or drop. Voices were hushed as eyes focused on the colorful bowls of water that were ready to splash if not well attended.

After my students quietly and mindfully prepared the room, without spilling a drop of water, I congratulated them and asked them to reflect on how the classroom felt different on that day compared with the usual way we conducted the furniture task. I wrote their responses on the board. In their own words:

  • More calm
  • Peaceful
  • Organized
  • Less crazy
  • Together
  • Focused
  • Balancing
  • Not a drag.

I was pleased at how attuned my students were to the emotional difference associated with this minor change in protocol.

The next day, students entered the room and inevitably asked, “Where are the bowls?” “Go and see,” I replied. On each table was a piece of paper on which I’d written their very words from the previous day describing the positive difference they felt when applying mindfulness to an ordinary task. Students were pleased to see their own words instructing the activity.

Again, our time together began with a sense of ease.

The following day, I put nothing on the tables. When students inquired, I asked them to visualize a sleeping baby jaguar in the center of each table. I watched students hold each other accountable for being very quiet indeed, both vocally and physically. For several class periods to follow, students were eager to offer suggestions for what would be imagined on the desks while moving them — a marble, a bucket of acid, a tower of cupcakes.

A Habit of Mindfulness

Before this theme began to wear thin, I changed course by asking students to sit on top of the tables, usually a prohibited action. We talked in depth about the choices we always have in how we do things, even when we do not especially want to do them (like homework). I explained that my ideal wish would be for our school to afford a specialized room for our mindful practice, one with heated wooden floors, always-clean cushions, and lots of empty space. I asked students to imagine what their ideal room might look and feel like. They shared truly fantastic visions of rooms surrounded by waterfalls, equipped with fiber-optic lighting and aromatherapy misters. I asked them to name the qualities each of their ideal visions encompassed. Then I encouraged students to embody those qualities while we put the tables aside that day.

From that day forward, preparing the room mindfully became a part of our class culture. And on days when our mindfulness was distracted, I simply observed and did not give in to the impulse to manage. I allowed students to feel the difference, and therefore their behavior was self-limited by natural consequences. This experience of mindfulness, sparked by a genuine desire for coherence, set the stage for our learning through sitting mindfulness practice, mindful movement, and conscious breathing.

In my work with teachers, I encourage honest, fearless contemplation on what is and is not working in the classroom. This simple exercise can help you discover the mundane moments and tasks in your own classroom that are just waiting for your creativity to transform them into mindful learning opportunities.

Make math concrete with digital fabrication

Make math concrete with digital fabrication

By Kimberly Corum and Joe Garofalo 2/3/2015

For too many students, doing mathematics means just plugging numbers into a memorized formula to get an answer. And because they don’t understand the formulas they’re using, they often fail to use the right one.

Take a look at Isaac’s work below, for example. He is a fifth grade student who tried to find the surface area of a rectangular prism by incorrectly adapting a previously memorized formula for calculating perimeter. He calculated two times the length plus two times the width (2L + 2W) and tried to account for the height by multiplying it by 4, then adding it to the previous sum. Unfortunately, Isaac is not alone in this type of approach. Students who use formulas by rote may never come to see mathematics as sense-making and may never understand the formulas they use. And there are so many formulas to memorize! Teachers who prematurely introduce students to formulas risk denying them opportunities to develop the necessary conceptual foundations for mathematical understanding.


One way to help students like Isaac understand surface area is to present it conceptually using manipulatives. Physical manipulatives — concrete objects such as blocks, chips, unifix cubes and geoboards — are already a common staple of mathematics classrooms. Virtual manipulatives — computer images created by, for example, computer-aided design (CAD) software, Geometer’s Sketchpad or Flash programs — are also becoming more and more prevalent in classrooms. And now, with the increased availability of 3D printers and CAD software in schools across the country, digital fabrication gives teachers an opportunity to incorporate both physical and virtual manipulatives into the same lesson.

What is digital fabrication?

Digital fabrication is the process of creating a physical object from a digital design developed on a computer. You can transform your classroom computers into personal fabrication systems that your students can use to create both virtual and physical manipulatives by installing CAD software and hooking them up to a 3D printer, a die cutter or even a standard inkjet or laser printer.

CAD software, such as FabLab ModelMaker, Fab@School Maker Studio and Autodesk 123D Design, allows students to design, rotate, transform and measure 3D solids. After creating these virtual manipulatives on screen, they can print the shape’s corresponding net on cardstock, vinyl or other types of material. Finally, they can use a die cutter to cut the outer edges of the net and perforate the fold lines to make construction of the physical 3D solid easier, or they can just cut it out by hand.

2_modelmaker-screenshot die-cut-manipulative

Both virtual manipulatives (shown in the photo on the left) and physical manipulatives (printed out as a net, on the right) can help students make sense of surface area.

How we used digital fabrication to teach surface area

Our fifth grade students’ used their own personal fabrication systems — which included MacBooks, FabLab ModelMaker, Canon inkjet printers and Silhouette die cutters — to complete the following lessons during their digital fabrication unit:

Initial exploration. Students looked at different models of 3D solids and identified key attributes, such as the number of faces, the shapes of the different faces, etc.

Introduce hardware/software. Students created their own one-inch cardstock cubes, which gave them the opportunity to explore the software. They designed their solids, measured different attributes, looked at different views, and printed physical models from their virtual manipulatives.

Define surface area. We asked students what they thought surface area might mean, focusing on the relationship between surfaces and faces, their prior experiences with area, and the key attributes of 3D solids they had identified.

Connections between representations. Using the software, students explored the relationship between their printed-out, folded cubes and the cubes’ nets. Students rotated their cubes using the software to explore all six faces. Then they hypothesized how they might calculate surface area.

Rotating and coloring. We asked students to review their definitions of surface area and how it is calculated. Students used the software to rotate and color different faces of their cube and explore the relationship between the colored faces on the cube and its net. After calculating the surface area of their cubes, students constructed other types of rectangular prisms and calculated the surface area of these solids.

Developing strategies and skills

The digital fabrication unit gave students the chance to develop effective strategies for learning about surface area, such as recognizing the qualities of 3D figures they can’t see in a 2D representation and carrying out multi-step processes.

When students look at a 2D representation of a rectangular prism, they are able to see only the top face, front face and a side face. To find the surface area, they need to understand that each visible face has a corresponding face that is not visible. Throughout the digital fabrication unit, students had multiple experiences with nonvisible faces. The software allowed them to rotate 2D representations of prisms to make the nonvisible faces visible, and students could see both the 2D representation of a solid and its corresponding net, which displayed all of the faces. Students were also able to explore physical models of their solids.

They also developed strategies to keep track of their work, such as listing the areas of the faces, labeling each face with letters to account for all six faces, and annotating faces with calculated areas. Again, students used the software to help facilitate these strategies. Coloring each face and exploring the relationship between opposite faces gave students opportunities to keep track as they calculated face areas. When working with their physical prisms, they used their fingers as calipers to count faces in pairs. They would also label faces with a mark, letter or the area.

Take a look at Isaac’s calculations, below, after completing the digital fabrication unit. His work shows his ability to both consider what was not shown and keep track of his calculations.


Digital fabrication addresses the ISTE Standards

The ISTE Standard for Students addressing Creativity and Innovationrecommends that students “apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products or processes” and “use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues,” both of which happened in our digital fabrication unit. One ISTE Standard for Teachers, Design and Develop Digital Age Learning Experiences and Assessments, asks teachers to “design, develop and evaluate authentic learning experiences and assessments incorporating contemporary tools and resources to maximize content learning in context.” And digital fabrication promotes the ISTE Standards for Administrators’ Digital Age Learning Culture, which encourages school and district leaders to “model and promote the frequent and effective use of technology for learning” and “provide learner-centered environments equipped with technology and learning resources to meet the individual, diverse needs of all learners.”

Digital fabrication also supports the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics’ Principles and Standards for School MathematicsTechnology Principle: “Students’ engagement with, and ownership of, abstract mathematical ideas can be fostered through technology. Technology enriches the range and quality of investigations by providing a means of viewing mathematical ideas from multiple perspectives.”

Digital fabrication technology played an integral role in helping our students really understand surface area. Using physical and virtual manipulatives helped them develop conceptual understandings of surface area and facilitated the development of two problem-solving strategies they will be able to apply to other content areas.

Kimberly Corum is a Ph.D. student in mathematics education at the University of Virginia. A former high school math and science teacher, her research interests include students’ understanding of 3D measurement and the use of manipulatives in the classroom to support student learning.

Joe Garofalo is co-director of the Center for Technology and Teacher Education at the University of Virginia. His primary interests are in mathematical problem solving, use of technology to facilitate mathematics learning and mathematics teacher education.

Teaching Students How to Talk Less, and Think More


CreditJessica Lahey

This week’s question comes from a discussion on my Facebook feed, in which Mark North, an instructor at Highline Community Collegein Des Moines, Wash., asked for suggestions about how to manage students who monopolize class time with their comments. I often get the flip side of this question from parents who say their child’s teacher calls on some students and not others, or from parents who are concerned that their quiet child gets overlooked in class.

Classroom management is a constant, and complex, balancing act. Teachers must weigh the needs of individual students against the progress of the class as a whole; supporting the enthusiasm of one without sacrificing the engagement of the rest. Nearly every teacher I know has been accused of ignoring a particular student or of favoring one student — or class of students — over another. When this accusation is directed at me, I try to remind parents that in a class of 20 or 30 or more students, it can be a challenge to hear each child’s voice in the crowd and take note of nonverbal engagement. Furthermore, a child may be painfully aware of the fact that she did not get called last Thursday, but fail to notice or remember that there were 20 other hands in the air at the same time as hers.

One suggestion, provided by JC Clapp, an English teacher at North Seattle Community College, also in Washington State, emerged as a favorite in the Facebook discussion thread:

I deal out playing cards and then students put their card on the table when they make a comment. That way, they can’t comment again until everybody else has put their cards on the table. This encourages students to speak that don’t usually, and it forces students who pipe up all of the time to choose their comments carefully.

Peter D. Ford III, a middle school math teacher in Inglewood, Calif. (Twitter bio: “my classroom is tough so the rest of your life won’t be”), offered a twist on the Clapp technique in an email: “I keep cards with each student’s name on them, then use them during instruction and class activities to elicit student responses, calling upon them randomly. I’ve never had students or parents complain about me calling on students unfairly.”

For a big-picture perspective on classroom management and student engagement, I turned to Doug Lemov and his book, “Teach Like a Champion.” The recently released 2.0 edition comes with a DVD that illustrates the teaching techniques that Mr. Lemov describes, so I spent one snowy weekend reading about and watching master teachers at work.

After my “Teach Like a Champion” binge weekend, I wrote Mr. Lemov to ask for his perspective on balancing class participation. He replied with a reminder: class participation doesn’t have to be verbal to be valuable. Once you realize that, Mr. Lemov wrote, it’s easy to make class participation fair and inclusive. His email continues:

I watched a video of a teacher named Maggie Johnson the other day — she was teaching “To Kill a Mockingbird.” She asked a question and about three-quarters of the kids shot their hands into the air. When a kid thinks, “I never get called on” it’s this kind of question they are thinking of, the one everyone wants to talk about. “I can’t wait to talk about it with you,” Maggie says, “but you’ve got to write about it first. Two minutes to answer in your packets. Go!” Those kids wrote, and she then could circulate and respond to their ideas. It was beautiful because she so clearly took their energy to talk and translated it into a more productive energy, the energy to write — which is not only more rigorous but everyone gets to do it.

Another important tool for classroom management is silence, or “wait time.” Mr. Lemov advocates for this quiet time in “Teach Like a Champion” because, “The answers the teacher can expect to get after less than a second’s reflection are unlikely to be the richest, the most reflective, or the most developed his students can generate.”

The benefits that flow from a few seconds of silence between question and answer, are manifold, Mr. Lemov writes. In those seconds, students have time to develop richer, more thoughtful answers. Evidence has the opportunity to emerge from memory, and assemble in support of those answers. Knee-jerk “I don’t know” responses can give way to more thoughtful contemplation. Best of all, those seconds are precious gifts to students with slower processing speeds and weaker working memory, students who would like to contribute to class discussion if only the runaway train of class discussion would slow down a bit.

We all feel rushed in today’s classroom — to teach, to question, to respond — but increasingly, we need to teach children how to close their mouths and open their minds. Silence, whether packaged as a reflective writing period, a mandatory three-second waiting time on student responses, or simply as a moment of quiet reflection between subjects, is golden.

Breaking down perceptions of others helps students learn


Jess Buller headshot

Jess Buller

Jess Buller is the PK-8 principal for Yuma School District-1 in Yuma, Colorado. A former English and German teacher, he is passionate about student success and relentless in the pursuit of a school culture infused with grit and curiosity.

Following the direction of John Keating — masterfully played by Robin Williams in Dead Poet’s Society — it was time to stand on the desk. Time to change not only our view but our approach as well. The students with whom we work each and every day — Gen Z’ers as they are now known — needed something more.

So at Yuma Middle School on Colorado’s eastern plains, we created MindWorks.

MindWorks is a combination of Brainology — an online program created by Drs. Carol Dweck and Lisa Blackwell of Stanford University — and project-based learning using inspiration from the works of Dweck, Blackwell, Angela Duckworth, and others in the field of brain development. To reinvigorate a passion for learning, MindWorks breaks down perceptions (one’s self or others’) that often limit what students are able to accomplish.

MindWorks has been incorporated into our counseling program at Yuma Middle School. At the helm of our counseling program is tech-geek/problem solver Elaine Menardi. She explains the need for the course this way:

“MindWorks is an integration class. Where core classes focus individually on math or science or language arts or social studies, MindWorks is a time to practice all of those skills simultaneously. Middle school students make up the core population of Generation Z and easily outpace our adult skills with their digital native intuitiveness.

Combine this with their uncanny ability to multitask and consume media and you have an explosive opportunity to take them to the next level academically. These students must be challenged to persevere through difficulty so we are focusing on key character traits like grit and curiosity.”

In addition to words like grit and curiosity, setback and obstacle, one will also hear us use the term growth mindset. It is a concept that is gaining popularity in the field of education and beyond. Research has shown us that one who possesses a growth mindset does not shy away from setback and failure; rather, the growth-minded person is one who uses those challenges as motivators to try harder and improve his or her character.

On the opposite side of the growth mindset is the fixed mindset. The fixed-minded person is one who is unable to move forward when faced with obstacles. He or she operates with a perceived “ceiling” of ability disallowing for any type of positive, vertical movement.

I am passionate about using MindWorks to instill in students a growth mindset and to redefine what 21st century college and career readiness should mean. My support for this endeavor is inspired by an even greater cause: I want to shatter the misconception of what rural schools can achieve.

Rural districts like Yuma are faced with smaller budgets, limited personnel resources and inaccessibility due to location. Often the perception is that these limitations mean students cannot or should not be expected to compete with students in urban and suburban districts. This is a myth.

Still in its developmental stage, our desire is for MindWorks to instill in students a growth mindset and to reenergize and feed the intellectual fire that we know all students possess. In doing so we seek to uncover each student’s potential and help him or her embark on the educational journey with renewed energy.

The class meets for 30 minutes every other day and students engage in small group activities, online research and team collaboration.

Menardi further describes how students spend their class time.

“For the first semester, we have been focused on how our brains absorb and process information. If we view the brain as a muscle — which it is — students learn that practice and hard work in school grows their mental abilities in the same way that athletes improve at their sports.”

“By the end of the semester, we will have blogs, videos, Slide Shares, Blackout poems, cartoons, infographics and newspaper articles posted on the student website YumaMindWorks.com. It is a very exciting time at Yuma Middle School.”

There is a lot of misconception out there as to what a counseling program can truly provide a school. All too often, counselors are remanded to menial tasks and occasional chat sessions with students. Our philosophy is that a good counseling program can serve to meet the needs of the individual as well as the masses.

Standing on a desk shouting O Captain! My Captain! helped us envision a larger world for students and create a new path of learning that does more to meet the true needs of students. Already we see their growth and renewed energy for education.

I invite you to follow the research that has inspired us and to check us out on the web. The class website is YumaMindWorks.com. You can also visit the Yuma School District-1YouTube Channel for a great look at some of the projects that have taken place thus far.